Senin, 24 Juni 2013

Analysis of Organizational Culture, Leadership, Compensation, and Work Environment on Employee Performance PT PLN (Persero) Jakarta and Tangerang Distribution

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND Employees is an important resource for the company. As an executive in the existing activities within the company, and therefore the employees are required to have a good mental attitude, dedicated, disciplined, honest and has a good performance that can support the company's activities for the company to achieve its objectives. Employee performance is a part or the most important element for the company because it provides considerable influence to the survival of the company. Therefore, the management of human resources must be well managed and benar.Dalam this company should always maintain and improve the quality of employee performance. For companies, employees are the most important element in determining the success or failure of a company in achieving its goals. Factors that influence employee performance including organizational culture, leadership, compensation and work environment. According to Gordon (2002:374) organizational culture is seen as one of the sources that support the company's employees to obtain a good performance. Organizational culture enables enterprises to obtain superior employee performance, and organizational culture that are unik.Efektivitas employee performance can also be influenced by the factor of leadership. Effectiveness of employee performance can also be supported by a conducive working environment. This Padakonteks, Davis (2008:129) argues that working in a corporate environment is of significant importance for the employee to perform the activity as this will affect directly or indirectly the activities of workers in it. Oatley in fan Baron Armstrong (2005), argues that performance is not just about what one achieves, but also how to achieve it are concerned. In addition, this opinion is also in line with the opinion of Schermerhorn, Hunt and Osborn (2004) which states that individual performance should be measured through outputs and activities in producing these outputs. Choosing study sites in PT PLN (Persero) Jakarta and Tangerang Distribution, because it is one branch company very much counted on to support the three main objectives of the current government, ie: able to boost national economic growth (pro-growth); expand the provision of field employment (pro-job) and eradicate poverty (pro-poor). One heavy duty performed by PT PLN (Persero) is the national electricity needs, in this case almost 20% of domestic needs from PT PLN (Persero) Distribution Jakarta and Tangerang. Therefore the reliability of human resources owned by PT PLN (Persero) Distribution Jakarta and Tangerang in particular can be expected as the company's assets must be maintained and enhanced both individual skills and abilities as a group. Factors such as organizational culture, leadership, compensation and work environments to determine the performance of employees participate themselves. The fourth variable is also the explanations for why the performance of employees at PT PLN (Persero) Distribution of Jakarta and Tangerang tends to decrease when the resource development efforts of its employees remains unclear and do not with a planned and programmed efforts lead to a reliable system that can impact on improving employee performance. Based on the above, the author became interested in creating a research titled "Analysis of Organizational Culture, Leadership, Compensation, and Work Environment on Employee Performance PT PLN (Persero) Jakarta and Tangerang Distribution". 1.2 PROBLEMS 1. Are variable Organizational Culture, Leadership, Compensation, and Work Environment simultaneous significant effect on Employee Performance PT PLN (Persero) Jakarta and Tangerang Distribution? 2. Are variable Organizational Culture, Leadership, Compensation, and Work Environment Roa partially significant effect on Employee Performance PT PLN (Persero) Jakarta and Tangerang Distribution? 1.3 PURPOSE 1. To determine and analyze the influence of organizational culture, leadership, compensation, and simultaneously work environment on employee performance PT PLN (Persero) Distribution of Jakarta and Tangerang. 2. To determine and analyze the influence of organizational culture, leadership, compensation, and work environment on employee performance partially PT PLN (Persero) Jakarta and Tangerang Distribution 1.4 ADVANTAGE The benefits to be gained from this study are as follows: 1. Benefits for Researchers: The research subjects closely related to Human Resource Management, so by doing this research is expected to writers and all interested parties can better understand it. 2. Benefits For University Gunadarma: Can be used to complete the requirements for a degree thesis at the University Gunadarma and can be used as a library collection Gunadarma University 3. Practical Benefits: This study focused on employees of PT PLN (Persero) Jakarta and Tangerang Distribution as a research object, so expect employees and other interested parties can use this research as a material consideration in decision making CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1.1 Organizational Culture According Siagian (2001:188), organizational culture is the willingness, ability, and willingness to adjust one's behavior to organizational culture, which is relevant to the willingness, ability, and willingness improve their productivity. Wibowo (2006:347), defines organizational culture is the norms and habits are accepted as true by everyone in the organization, from a few experts in the above definitions can be concluded organizational culture is a system of values that are believed to all members of the organization studied, applied and developed on an ongoing basis function as adhesive systems can be used as a reference and behave within the organization to achieve corporate objectives that have been set. 2.1.2 Compensation According to some expert opinion include the Hasibuan Wather and Davis (2001:133), the compensation is something that a worker received in reply that it provides jobs, both hourly wage or salary periodically, designed and managed by the Human Resources Department. By Handoko (2003:155) compensation was received everything the employee as remuneration for their work, if given the right compensation, the employees will be more satisfied and motivated to achieve organizational goals. Compensation is important for employees as individuals because of the large size of the compensation reflects the value of their work among the employees themselves, their families and communities. Compensation, the employees need to be motivated to keep them working properly and always give the best performance for the company. Goals will be difficult to achieve if the company's employees do not want to explore the potential that was in him to work as closely as possible. 2.1.3 Leadership in an organization, leadership is one of the main factors that contributed to its success in achieving organizational goals. Many experts are trying to define leadership. According to Hughes (2006) states that leadership is a complex phenomenon that involves three main issues, namely the leader, follower, and situation. 2.1.4 Work Environtment According to (Darji Darmodiarjo; 2008; 47) The working environment is an important factor that needs to get the attention of leaders in order to create a good working atmosphere that will result in high employee performance. He also stated that leaders need regular attention to the work environment indicators include: working equipment, comfort, safety, and relationships. 2.1.5 Employee Performance Understanding performance by Mangkunagara (2000:67) is the result of the quality and quantity of work accomplished by an employee in carrying out their duties in accordance with the responsibilities assigned to him. Results of an individual's performance on the performance of the required information, by way of assessing the performance target by comparing with the standard job requirements that have been set. Standard work can be made qualitatively and quantitatively. Performance can only be pushed forward if the person or employee knows and understands the goals that must be achieved as individuals and groups, therefore a leader must be able to define what performance is to be achieved by any individual or group, and ensure that they are aware of what is at them hope, and to keep employees focused on achieving maximum performance, efficient, and effective, while according to Bernardin & Russell (2001:379) performance or performance is as a record of results generated from a particular job function or activity during the period given time. . CHAPTHER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1. Object Research Research object in this study were employees of PT PLN (Persero) Distribution Jakarta and Tangerang Jalan Raya 1 M.Ridwan Rais in Central Jakarta 3.2 Source of Data Data taken at PT PLN (Persero) Jakarta and Tangerang Distribution is the primary data. Primary data is data obtained by putting a question on the participants intended to shed some light on this previous research 3.3 Data Analysis and Testing Techniques Data processing was performed using the computer program SPSS version 19 for Windows. Simple linear regression analysis was used to analyze. Simple regression analysis model can be formulated as follows: Description: Y : Employee Performance X2 : Compensation X1 : Organizational Culture X3 : Leadership X4 : Work Environtment a : Konstanta b1- b4 : Koefisien e : error CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Validity test Table 4.1 Validity test Result Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted BO1 71,21 36,592 ,630 ,930 BO2 71,64 36,374 ,729 ,934 BO3 71,36 34,243 ,744 ,934 KE1 71,21 36,592 ,730 ,930 KE2 71,37 32,781 ,880 ,931 KE3 71,31 34,853 ,688 ,937 KE4 71,37 38,781 ,780 ,931 KO1 71,37 32,781 ,780 ,931 KO2 71,32 30,745 ,626 ,934 KO3 71,37 30,781 ,780 ,931 LK1 71,21 39,592 ,830 ,930 LK2 71,39 39,884 ,907 ,939 LK3 71,52 31,709 ,602 ,932 LK4 71,35 31,316 ,702 ,939 KP1 71,21 32,392 ,730 ,930 KP2 71,39 40,544 ,607 ,939 KP3 71,52 37,990 ,702 ,932 source : spss 19.0 processing results (2013) 4.2 Reliability Test Based on the above table, it can be concluded that the overall insturumen used are reliable because the numbers obtained Cronbach's Alpha of .876. Following the calculation of all instruments: Tabel 4.2 Overall Reliability Test Results Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items ,876 17 source: spss 19.0 processing results (2013). 4.3 Normality Test Descriptive Statistics N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Skewness Kurtosis Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic Std. Error Unstandardized Residual 100 -.52566 .59397 0E-7 .16672222 .046 .241 1.005 .678 Valid N (listwise) 100 Seen that the ratio of skewness: 0.46 / 0,241 = 1.9087, while the kurtosis ratio: 1,005 / 0,678 = 1.4823. Because the ratio of skewness and kurtosis ratio is between -2 to 2, it can be concluded that the distribution of data is normal 4.4 Heteroscedastic Test Based on Figure scatter plot shows that there are points that do not form a specific pattern, and the points spread above and below the 0 on the Y axis, so that it can be concluded that in this study used regression models did not have heteroscedasticity. 4.5 Multicollinearity Test Multicollinearity occurs when the VIF value is more than 10 and tolerance values less than 0.1. To determine whether there is multicollinearity in a regression model can be seen from the VIF (Variance Inflation Factor) contained in each variable. Here are the test results of Multicollinearity. Tabel 4.3 Multicollinearity Test Result Model Collinearity Statistics Tolerance VIF 1 (Constant) BOrata ,137 3,904 KErata ,164 5,836 KOrata ,187 4,359 LKrata ,423 3,799 source: spss 19.0 processing results (2013). Based on the table above can be seen the value of tolerance of variable organizational culture, leadership, compensation, and work environment that shows work no less than 10% or saw Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) no more than 10, it can be said that the regression model these variables are of no multicollinearity problem. 4.6 Multiple Linear Regression Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine the influence of independent variables Organizational Culture (BO), Leadership (KE), Compensation (KO), and Work Environtment (LK) the dependent variable is the Employee Performances (KP) . Tabel 4.5 Hasil Uji Regresi Linear Berganda Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig. Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta Tolerance VIF 1 (Constant) 2.633 .783 3.362 .001 BO .144 .069 .258 2.073 .041 .461 2.171 KE .212 .087 .254 2.426 .017 .651 1.536 KOM .168 .082 .181 2.042 .044 .907 1.103 LING .122 .078 .177 1.667 .120 .558 1.793 a. Dependent Variable: KIP source: spss 19.0 processing results (2013). Dengan melihat pada tabel diatas, di dapat persamaan regresinya adalah: Y = 0,2633 + 0, 144X1 + 0,212X2 + 0,168X3 + 0,122X4 + e 4.7 Discussion of Results From the equation above, it can be seen that: - Constants worth 2,633; This means that if the variable of organizational culture, leadership, compensation, and work environment is 0, then its effect on the performance of employees is 2,633. - Organizational culture variable regression coefficient value 0.144; This means that if the variable of organizational culture to increase by 1 the performance of employees will increase by 0144 assuming a fixed value independent of other variables. - Leadership variable coefficient value 0.212; This means that if the leadership variable increased by 1, the performance of employees will increase by 0212 assuming a fixed value independent of other variables. - The coefficient of the variable compensation is worth 0168; This means that if the variable compensation increased by 1, the performance of employees will increase by 0168 assuming the other independent variables fixed value. - The working environment variable coefficient value 0.122; This means that if the variable compensation increased by 1, the performance of employees will increase by 0122 with another independent variable assuming value is fixed CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION CONCLUSION 1. Organizational Culture, Leadership, Compensation, and Work Environment simultaneously (together) have a significant effect on the performance of employees of PT PLN (Persero) Jakarta and Tangerang . 2. Organizational Culture, Leadership, Compensation, and Work Environment are partially influential on the performance of employees of PT PLN (Persero) Jakarta and Tangerang Distribution. 3. The most influential variable in this study is leadership variable references Dr.A.A.Anwar Prabu Mangkunegara, Drs., M.Si. Psi. 2009. Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Perusahaan. Mangkuprawira, Syafry. 2002. Manajemen Sumber Daya Manusia Strategi. Jakarta : Ghalia Indonesia. Tuti hairani. 2010. pengaruh gaya kepemimpinan, motivasi dan lingkungan kerja terhadap kinerja pegawai pada sekolah tinggi ilmu ekonomi lampung di bandar lampung.Jurnal manajemen dan bisnis vol.1 no.1 (oktober) hal (88-100) Eduard L peswanessa. 2008. 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